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Technical Guidelines for Submission to Journal of Rural Problems

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1. Article Structure and Notation of Punctuation marks, Units, etc.
(1) Articles should be divided into sections, subsections and sub-subsections in the following order: sections [1., 2., ...], subsections [(1), (2), ...], and sub-subsections [1), 2) ...].
(2) Comma and period should be used as punctuation marks. Units should be expressed using standard abbreviations and symbols, such as %, kg, ha, etc.

2. Notes
Notes that are numbered sequentially through the text should be listed at the end of the text. Further, superscript numbers should be shown in the insert positions of notes in the text (e.g., 1, 2, etc.).

3. Citations
References cited must be kept to a requisite minimum. They should be indicated in the text with the author’s family name and the publication year. Do not describe bibliographic information such as a title and a URL in citations. Citations should be made in the text, but they may be indicated in notes if it is deemed more appropriate in the particular research fields and/or the descriptive contents. Citations should be made according to the following guidelines, indicating authors’ names in accordance with the section 4(1).
(1) For citation at the end of a sentence in the text, include both the author’s family name and the publication year of the work in parentheses. Author’s name must be followed by a comma.
For example: … is revealed (Suzuki, 2011).
(2) In case of referring to an author’s work within a sentence, the author’s name must be followed by the year of publication in parentheses.
For example: According to Suzuki (2011), …
(3) When two works or more are cited at the end of a sentence, they should be separated by a semi-colon (;). They should be listed in order of the family name of the first author according to the Japanese syllabary (gojyu-on) for Japanese works, alphabetical order for alphabet descripting works, and pinyin order for Chinese works. To refer to more than one work of the same author, indicate the publication year of each work successively by separating them with a comma.
For example: (Johnson, 2005; Sato, 1999; Smith, 2000; Suzuki, 2011) (Suzuki, 2009, 2011)
These findings are consistent with Suzuki (2009, 2011).
(4) For a work including two authors, indicate both authors’ family names using “・” for Japanese or Chinese works cited in Japanese manuscripts and “and” for alphabet descripting works cited in Japanese or English manuscripts. For a work including three authors or more, indicate only the first author’s family name followed by “他” for Japanese or Chinese works cited in Japanese manuscripts and “et al.” for alphabet descripting works cited in Japanese or English manuscripts.
For example: (Suzuki and Sato, 1999) (Suzuki et al., 2009)
As shown in Suzuki and Sato (1999) and Suzuki et al. (2009), ….
(5) In case of citing more than one work of the same author published in the same year, add alphabets to the published year in order of citation.
For example: (Suzuki, 2000a, 2000b)
Suzuki (2000a, 2000b) proposed ….
(6) When citing a specific part of a work, indicate the page number(s) of the part after the publication year, inserting colon (:).
For example: (Suzuki and Sato, 2011: p. 10) (Sato et al., 2014: pp. 32-45)
As with Suzuki and Sato (2011: p. 10) and Sato et al. (2014: pp. 32-45), ….
(7) When multi-year works such as statistics are cited, both the years of beginning and ending should be indicated as publication years.
For example: (MAFF, 1995-2014a, 1995-2014b)
Data were collected from MAFF (1995-2014a, 1995-2014b).

4. List of References
All the works and materials cited should be listed at the end of manuscripts (after the endnotes) following the guidelines and examples shown below. Do not add any references that are not cited in manuscripts.
(1) Notation of References
(a) For Japanese Manuscripts
i) Works written in Japanese, Chinese, or European languages (which use the Latin alphabet; hereinafter referred to as “the alphabet”) should be presented as they are written. However, simplified characters and traditional characters used in Chinese works should be replaced with kanji characters that can be typed in Japanese font.
ii) For works written in other languages using other characters, transliterate the citation information on the basis of the pronunciation in the original language into English letters. Provide the English title in parentheses after the title in the original language if there is an official translation for the title.
(b) For English Manuscripts
i) Works written in European languages (which use the alphabet) should be presented as they are written.
ii) For works written in other languages, provide the citation information using the similar manner shown in the section 4(a)ii). However, if works have English titles, original language titles can be omitted and original language names should be described in parentheses at the end of reference.
(c) Others
i) Page number(s) of book in a reference list should be indicate when a book chapter is cited. When a specific part of book is cited, the page number(s) should be described in the citations according to the similar manner shown in the section 3(6), and should not be indicated in a reference list.
ii) When works do not have the pages numbered sequentially through a journal, DOI should be indicated at the end of a reference.
iii) In a reference list, all authors of works must be described. Do not omit after the second author using “他” or “et al.”.

(2) Author’s Name
(a) For works written in Japanese or Chinese languages, provide the author’s full name in Japanese manuscripts.
(b) For works written in the alphabet, names other than the family name should be indicated by initials.
(c) For works including multiple authors in Japanese or Chinese languages, the authors’ names should be separated by “・” in Japanese manuscripts. For works of two authors expressed in the alphabet, the authors’ names should be connected by “and”; for works of more than two authors, separate the names of the authors with commas from the name of the first author until the name of the author before the last author and insert “and” before the name of the last author.
(3) Order in the Reference List
(a) For Japanese Manuscripts
If the cited works are written in different languages, they should be separately listed by language in order of Japanese works, alphabet descripting works, and Chinese works. Then, works in the same language should be listed in order of the family name of the first author according to the Japanese syllabary (gojyu-on) for Japanese works, alphabetical order for alphabet descripting works, and pinyin order for Chinese works.
(b) For English Manuscripts
Because all works cited are expressed in the alphabet, they do not need to be separately listed by language. References should be listed in alphabetical order on the basis of the first author’s family name.
(c) In both Japanese and English manuscripts, works of the same author should be listed in order of the publication year, from the oldest to the newest.

[Examples for English manuscripts]
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2011) FAOSTAT. (http://faostat.fao.org/site/291/default.aspx) [Accessed July 5, 2011].
Gardner, B. L. and Rausser, G. C. (Eds.) (2002) Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Volume 2A: Agriculture and Its External Linkages. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Hayami, Y., Kikuchi, M. and Marciano, E. B. (1999) Middlemen and peasants in rice marketing in the Philippines. Agricultural Economics, 20(2), 79-93.
Lentz, E. C. and Barrett, C. B. (2013) The economics and nutritional impacts of food assistance policies and programs (ESA Working Paper No. 13-04). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/esa/Papers_and_documents/WP_13-04_Lentz_Barrett.pdf) [Accessed July 19, 2015].
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan (MAFF) (Ed.) (2011-2015a) Production Cost of Industrial Crops (2009-2013). Tokyo: Association of Agriculture and Forestry Statistics (in Japanese).
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan (MAFF) (Ed.) (2011-2015b) Production Cost of Rice, Wheat and Barley (2009-2013). Tokyo: Association of Agriculture and Forestry Statistics (in Japanese).
Ogasawara, M. and Iba, H. (2009) Information network structure in the communal farming for organization management. Journal of Rural Problems, 45(3), 297-304 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Stern, N. (2007) The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stiglitz, J. E. (1991a) Another century of economic science. Economic Journal, 101, 134-141.
Stiglitz, J. E. (1991b) Rational peasants, efficient institutions, and a theory of rural organization: Methodological remarks for development economics. In: P. K. Bardhan (Ed.) The Economic Theory of Agrarian Institutions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 18-29.
Wolf, C. A. and Widmar, N. J. (2015) Can insurance provide the US dairy farm safety net? Agricultural and Food Economics, 3. doi:10.1186/s40100-015-0031-8

Last revised: October 30, 2015.